This information, written by Don Butler N4UJW, came from the
following site: http://www.hamuniverse.com/repeater.html.
The information was re posted here with his permission with LIMARC’s
thanks. It is well written and an interesting source for the new ham operating
on a repeater and a great source for those that have been on repeaters for
years, but could use a little reminder. Read it, you’ll be glad you did!
You might want to visit the original site (with this content) and definitely go
to his main antenna site (his most popular page on his site) for invaluable
information: http://www.hamuniverse.com/antennas.html Try this site
too: - http://www.hamuniverse.com/techniciantopics.html. Here
A New Ham’s Guide
How to Use Amateur (Ham Radio) Repeaters
Simple enough for even me to understand! This article will help
the New Ham to be more at home on repeaters and understand the operation and
procedures on Ham Radio Repeaters. It contains a basic description of a ham
radio repeater, how to use it properly and is written with the NEW HAM in mind
for the most popular ham band....2 meters.
What is a Repeater and Why is it Needed, and How Does It Work?
What: It’s a two-way radio
system that receives on one frequency, then re-transmits what it hears on
another frequency; at exactly the same time. It’s nothing more than a
"dumb machine" with some smart people behind it.
Why it’s needed: Your mobile or
handleld transceiver, has a limited range due to it’s antenna height with
respect to the radio horizon and rf attenuating surroundings. Repeater systems
are used to "transfer" your transmitted and received signals to much
higher elevations electronically using large, very efficient antennas, low loss
feedlines and a transmitter and receiver that is rated for heavy or continuous
duty. A repeater "gets out" your signal and receives the station you
are talking to with a far greater range and coverage area! You take advantage
of the repeater’s higher elevation to increase your effective transmitting
and receiving coverage versus your mobile or hand held transceiver!
How does a Repeater work?
Here’s a simple block diagram of a repeater below:
The Basic Repeater Components:
Most repeaters use only one antenna. The antenna is used on transmit and
receive signals that are going into and out of the repeater. It usually is a
high performance, heavy duty, and very efficient antenna located as high on a
tower or structure as we can get it above the surrounding terrain. Lots of
repeater system antennas are located on a high hill or mountain. Antenna
systems for repeater use are usually very costly and have high gain.
The feed line used on most repeaters is not just a piece of standard coax
cable. A type of specialized feed line called Hard line is used. It is very
similar to cable tv line that you see strung between power poles around town.
The signal loss with hard line versus regular coax is much lower than in
standard coax, so more power gets to the antenna and weaker signals can be
This device serves a major role in a repeater. The duplexer separates and
isolates the incoming signal from the outgoing and vice versa. It prevents the
receiver and transmitter from hearing one another by the isolation it provides.
A duplexer has the shape of tall cans and is designed to pass a very narrow
range of frequencies and to reject others. It helps to reject very strong
nearby frequencies from other repeaters or rf producers from getting into the
Receives the incoming signal. This receiver is generally a very sensitive and
selective one which helps weaker stations to be heard better by the repeater.
It is set to receive the input frequency. It’s also where CTCSS (Continuous
Tone Coded Squelch System) or "PL" decoding takes place.
Most machines, as repeaters are sometimes called, have a transmitter composed
of an exciter and a power amplifier. The exciter modulates the audio coming
from the receiver which is tuned to the transmitting stations’s frequency
at the proper transmit frequency, and the power amplifier simply boosts its
level so the signal will travel further. Lots of repeaters use 100 watts or
more. It simply takes the weaker received frequency from say a mobile and
re-transmits it (repeats) at a higher power level on a different frequency.
This is the brain of the repeater. It handles repeater station ID using either
CW or voice, activates the transmitter at the appropriate times, and sometimes
performs many other functions depending on the sophistication of the repeater.
Some also have a DVR (Digital Voice Recorder) for announcements and messages.
The controller is a small computer that’s programmed to control a
What is Offset?
In order to listen and transmit at the same time, repeaters use two different
frequencies. One for it’s transmit frequency and another for it’s
receive frequency. On the 2 meter ham band these frequencies are 600 khz (or
600 kilohertz) apart. On other bands, the offsets are different. As a general
rule, if the output frequency (transmit) of the repeater is below 147 Mhz, then
the input frequency (listening) is 600 kilohertz lower. This is referred to as
a negative offset. If the output is 147 Mhz or above, then the input is 600
kilohertz above. This is referred to as a positive offset. Virtually all ham
radios sold today set the offset once you have chosen the operating frequency
automatically. Example: If the repeater output is 146.840 Mhz. The input, or
the frequency it listens on is 146.240 Mhz ( 600 kilohertz below). If you have
your radio tuned to 146.840 Mhz, (the repeater’s output frequency), when
you push the mic button, your radio automatically transmits on 146.240 Mhz,
600kc’s down from 146.840. When you release the mic button to listen, your
radio switches back to 146.840 Mhz to listen on the repeater’s output
frequency. Note: There are exceptions to the rule so check local repeater
Standard Repeater Input/Output Offsets
Why do Repeaters use an Offset?
Without having an offset between the transmit signal and the receive signal
frequency, the repeater would simply hear itself when it was transmitting on
the same frequency it was listening on! Therefore, to use a repeater a user
must use a different transmit frequency than receive frequency. Your actual
transmit frequency is the exact same one that the repeater receiver is
listening on. This is a form of duplex, or two frequency operation. It is known
as half-duplex as you do not receive and transmit at the same time but normally
use the push-to-talk button on your microphone to switch between the two. Cell
phones use full duplex so each party can hear the other while the other is
talking. Even with the offset, the two frequencies are close enough that some
isolation is required. Again, this isolation is done by the Duplexer. So you
can see why some repeater components interact with each other and without the
basic system components....nothing would work.
What’s all those tones about?
What is a PL or CTCSS Tone?
PL, an acronym for Private Line, is Motorola’s proprietary name for a
communications industry signaling scheme called the Continuous Tone Coded
Squelch System, or CTCSS. It is used to prevent a repeater from responding to
unwanted signals or interference. Tone Squelch is an electronic means of
allowing a repeater to respond only to stations that encode or send the proper
tone. In other words, if a repeater is set up to operate only when a PL tone of
say, 136.5hz is heard by it’s receiver, then it will allow the transmitting
station access. If your station, (your mobile, base or handheld) does not
transmit the tone when you key up, then the receiver of the repeater does not
hear you and will not be usable by your station until you set the tone in your
radio. Any station may be set up to transmit this unique low frequency tone
that allows the repeater to operate. If a repeater is "In PL mode"
that means it requires a CTCSS tone(PL tone)to activate the repeater. Due to
severe congestion of ham repeaters in some areas, most repeaters are PL’ed.
These repeaters were once called closed repeaters.
TABLE OF COMMON PL TONES (in hz)
67.0 94.8 131.8 171.3 203.5
69.3 97.4 136.5 173.8 206.5
71.9 100.0 141.3 177.3 210.7
74.4 103.5 146.2 179.9 218.1
77.0 107.2 151.4 183.5 225.7
79.7 110.9 156.7 186.2 229.1
82.5 114.8 159.8 189.9 233.6
85.4 118.8 162.2 192.8 241.8
88.5 123.0 165.5 196.6 250.3
91.5 127.3 167.9 199.5 254.1
What Happens When You Key Your
Let’s "key up" a repeater and see what sequence of events are
created within the repeater equipment when someone makes a transmission:
You key your mic and throw out your callsign...."This is
KE5??? listening on the 146.84 machine". Then you release the mic
Assuming your station is within range of the repeater....The
repeater antenna picked up your signal with it’s antenna on 146.24 (your
transmit frequency set to the standard offset and the repeater’s receive
frequency) and sent it down the feedline to the duplexer.
From there it was sent to the repeater receiver and converted to
an audio signal (just like the sounds coming from your speaker)....sent to the
controller (the brains of the repeater), then sent to the repeater transmitter
and turned back into a much greater amplified radio signal on 146.84mhz (the
output of the repeater)....sent to the duplexer....then thru the feedline to
the antenna and out over the air.
A mobile or base station that happened to be within range and
monitoring the .84 machine heard your transmission on 146.84mhz (the repeater
Since radio waves travel at about the speed of light....at the
split second that you first keyed your mic, the above events took place and the
repeater was receiving your signal on one frequency and re-transmitting your
signal on a different frequency at the same time!
The mobile station that was listening on the output frequency of
the repeater heard your callsign....keyed his mic and came back to you starting
the process all over again!
A simple way of demonstrating what is going on with a repeater is
to set a scanner or a second receiver tuned to the input frequency of a LOCAL
active repeater...in the case above...146.24mhz and you can monitor it’s
input (and the stations using it if they are local). Then with your
transceiver, monitor the output on 146.84mhz! You should be able to hear both
the input signals and the output of the repeater as all this takes place on the
How do you make a call on an Amateur
First, LISTEN AND LISTEN SOME MORE...... to make sure that the repeater is not
already in use. When you are satisfied that the repeater is not in use, set your transmitter power to the minimum and increase
only as needed to make contact with the repeater, begin with the
callsign of the station you are trying to contact followed by your callsign.
e.g. " N4??? this is N3???". (The N3??? is your callsign). If you
don’t establish contact with the station you are looking for, wait a minute
or two and repeat your call. If you are just announcing your presence on the
repeater it is helpful to others that may be listening if you identify the
repeater you are using AND your callsign. e.g. " This is N3??? listening
on the 84 machine or you could also say This is N3??? listening on 146.84
Dallas or the location of the repeater if known. This allows people that are
listening on radios that scan several repeaters to identify which repeater you
are using. If the repeater you are using is a busy repeater you may consider
moving to a simplex frequency (transmit and receive on the same frequency.....
see more below), once you have made contact with the station you were calling.
Repeaters are designed to enhance communications between stations that normally
wouldn’t be able to communicate because of terrain or power limitations. If
you can maintain your conversation without using the repeater, going
"simplex" (both stations on same frequency in a different part of the
band) will leave the repeater free for other stations to use that can’t
establish simplex communications!
Repeater Etiquette and Reporting Emergencies
The first and most important rule before using a repeater is to LISTEN FIRST.
Nothing is more annoying than someone that "keys up" or DOUBLES in
the middle of another conversation without first checking to make sure the
repeater is free. If the repeater is in use, wait for a pause in the
conversation (watch your S meter and wait for it to drop indicating the
repeater is listening) and simply say "Emergency, Emergency,
Emergency", and wait for one of the other stations to acknowledge your
call. If for some reason you are not heard, then repeat the 3
"Emergencies" again...then if you are still not heard, try another
This is not CB radio!
Don’t use CB lingo on any ham band such as 10-4,.....don’t say BREAKER!
Using the words BREAK, or BREAK, BREAK or BREAK, BREAK, BREAK or any
combination of them on Ham radio can be misunderstood by an operator depending
on his experience. The word "break" or combinations of it carries
many different meanings in the ham community and in the English language.
According to THE EMERGENCY COORDINATOR’S MANUAL Edited by Steven Ewald,
WV1X and Published by The American Radio Relay League,
Inc., Quote from the "General Procedures section....http://www.arrl.org/files/file/Public%2520Service/ECMANUAL.PDF
"16) The word "break" is never used UNLESS there is an emergency."
Then further down in the manual, it appears to contradict or
discourage the use of the word/s BREAK in the above statement:
"Note: The practice of using "BREAK" or
"BREAK BREAK" to announce distress traffic should
be strongly discouraged; it has no universally understood meaning.
So rather than have confusion...use plain language!
SO HOW DO YOU REPORT or ACT ON AN EMERGENCY
ON A HAM BAND?
Many hams use the wording, "BREAK, BREAK, BREAK", (the word
"break" repeated 3 times in a row). This is accepted practice on the
hf bands where noise may be a problem but on repeaters, usually noise is not a
problem, so using "plain" language such as "EMERGENCY",
REPEATED 2 OR MORE TIMES can be used to announce that there is an emergency and
the frequency is needed to relay vital information....if you hear an
"Emergency" call during your conversation with another
station....stop transmitting, acknowledge the station
calling the emergency and let them have the frequency immediately! Don’t delay them by saying something on the order of
"Stand by breaker" and then carry on your conversation with your
contact. Seconds wasted doing this may save a life! Listen to them carefully
and write down the details of their emergency. They will give you the details
of the emergency. Then pause for a moment and wait before you go back to
him.......many other hams who heard the emergency call may be responding ALL at
the same time.
If someone "beats" you to getting back to him, let him
take over. Do not break into the conversations UNLESS there is a need for a
relay. Under certain situations due to distances involved with mobiles and
repeaters, you may be able to hear a mobile BETTER than the repeater on the
input frequency of the repeater. It is a good idea to monitor the input if
possible if the station reporting the emergency is having trouble getting into
the repeater. You may be closer to him than the repeater and can hear him
better! Whether or not the station reporting the emergency is a base station OR
mobile, try to monitor the input of the repeater if there is difficulty in the
IF YOU ARE REPORTING AN EMERGENCY:
When using VOICE, use the international standard "MAYDAY" or
universally understood "EMERGENCY" to announce traffic of life-or-death importance.
The procedure should be:
1.Select the repeater frequency.
2. Wait for a space between transmissions if the repeater is busy.
3. Key your mic and state..."Emergency, Emergency, Emergency" unkey.
4. Wait for a response from the repeater users. If you get no response, try
When you do make contact, state your call sign and give as many details as to
the emergency as possible. Don’t panic, speak
slowly and clearly so the details will be
understood the first time! Always give details as exact and specific. Give the
details of the exact LOCATION of the emergency using enough description of the
location so it can be found easily by first responders. Don’t say....on
highway 60 and leave it at that. The emergency vehicles need exact locations if
at all possible. Remember, seconds or minutes saved equal lives in many cases!
Give number of "victims" if possible. Is there is fire involved,
downed power lines, immediate road blockage due to wreckage creating further
dangers? DETAILS, DETAILS, DETAILS. The person on the other end of your
transmission is most likely copying the info to paper so he can relay it to the
appropriate authorities. Help him help you!
If by some chance you have to use Morse code
when reporting an emergency, then:
The standard CW signal is "SOS," sent as a single character--not
spaced as three letters." EXAMPLE: DIT DIT DIT DAH DAH DAH DIT DIT DIT and
NOT, dit dit dit SPACE dah dah dah SPACE dit dit dit. NOTE: Many repeater
systems allow touch tone key pad entry of "911" DIRECT TO the 911
operators and the emergency reporting system. Check with your repeater system
owners or trustees for info BEFORE YOU NEED TO KNOW. When making a 911 call
direct from your station, make sure the 911 operator understands that you are
calling via ham radio and she/he can not talk or (be heard by you) until you
have unkeyed your radio. Use of the term "over" is very helpful
between you and the 911 operator. It is not like using cell phones. It is a one
way (half duplex) transmission using a repeater and not simplex as with regular
cell phones or land lines. Both parties CAN NOT talk at the same time!
Use plain language on a repeater. If you want to know
someone’s location, say "Where are you.... or what’s your
location?" If you want to know whether someone you’re talking with is
using a mobile rig or a hand-held radio, just ask: "What kind of radio are
you using?" You get the idea. Most repeater use is of a "local"
nature so signals will be usually of very high quality. The use of the phonetic
alphabet is very helpful at times.
Don’t call CQ to initiate a conversation on a repeater. Just
simply listen to make certain the repeater is not in use and then key your mic
and say your call sign. If someone happens to be listening and they want to
talk to you they will respond.
When you are using the repeater leave a couple of seconds between
exchanges to allow other stations to join in or make a quick call. Most
repeaters have a "Courtesy Tone" (a short...beep or series of beeps)
that will help in determining how long to pause. The courtesy tone serves two
purposes. Repeaters have a time out function that will shut down the
transmitter if the repeater is held on for a preset length of time (normally
three or four minutes). This ensures that if someone’s transmitter is stuck
on for any reason, it won’t hold the repeater’s transmitter on
indefinitely. (Don’t laugh, many microphones get lodged in the fold of car
seats and keep a repeater busy until it times out. Of course if it is not
noticed soon by the mobile operator.....the control operator of the repeater
may have to shut down the repeater until the problem is corrected.) When a ham
is talking and releases the push-to-talk switch on their radio, the controller
in the repeater detects the loss of carrier and resets the time-out timer. When
the timer is reset, the repeater sends out the courtesy tone. If you wait until
you hear this beep (normally a couple of seconds), before you respond, you can
be sure that you are pausing a suitable length of time. After you hear the
beep, the repeater’s transmitter will stay on for a few more seconds before
turning off. This is referred to as the "tail". The length of the
tail will vary from repeater to repeater but the average is about 2 or 3
You don’t HAVE to wait for the "tail to drop" before
keying up again, but make sure that you hear the courtesy tone before going
ahead. Note: If you don’t wait for the beep, the time-out timer may not
reset. If you time-out the repeater, YOUR conversation AFTER the time-out will
not be heard. The repeater time-out function does not care if you are still
talking or not; and the station on the other end may rib you about hogging the
machine and you will have wasted all those words! What is Doubling? When two
stations try to talk at the same time on the same repeater, the signals mix in
the repeater’s receiver and results in a buzzing sound, squeal, distorted
sound or severely jumbled and broken words.
When you are involved in a roundtable discussion with several
other stations it is always best to pass off the repeater to a specific person
(station) rather than leave it up it the air. e.g. "W3??? to take it, this
is N3???", then unkey; or.......
"Do you have any comments Fred?, this is N3???"; un key.
You could also say "OK...that’s all I have.....back to you Fred"
or the next person in rotation... (un key)....
Failing to use this or other techniques is an invitation to total confusion. As
a point of interest, a repeater will usually lock into the strongest of two FM
signals. This is the nature of FM. The strongest signal usually wins.
Signal Reports on a Repeater
Lots of new hams don’t understand that the S meter on their radio is only
reporting the relative strength of the repeater system and NOT the signal
strength of the station they are talking to unless they are in the simplex
mode. When the repeater is transmitting, it may have an output greatly
exceeding that of the station IT is listening to. Remember the station it hears
on the input frequency of it’s receiver may be on a hand held radio and
only a few blocks from the "machine" or it could be a mobile radio in
a vehicle out on the fringes of the repeater coverage area or a base station
running a high gain antenna and 100 watts from the next county or in some
cases, the next state. To a third party, (another ham), listening to the
machine on the repeater output, all of these stations would have the same S
meter reading on his S meter! As long as the repeater can detect the signals
and is working properly as it is setup, then all stations, (to the third ham),
will "appear" to have the same signal strength on the S meter. Remember, the S meter is only reporting the relative strength
of the repeater when it is transmitting and not the individual stations!
So all that being said, how do you give an accurate signal report to the
station you are talking to?
JUST USE PLAIN ENGLISH!
Listen to the background sounds of his AUDIO coming from your speaker in
between words and sentences. Don’t even look at your S meter. (Assuming the
repeater has a good strong signal into your location).
If there is no noise other than room background, road, passenger
or other sounds that could be picked up by his microphone, then he would be
said to have a FULL QUIETING signal into the repeater.....receiver. NOT 50 OVER
S9, S9, OR ANY COMBINATION on your S meter. The term "Quieting"
refers to the carrier level of the transmitter being strong enough to
"quiet" the background hiss on the frequency. If some background
noise such as the hiss that is commonly heard in an FM receiver is heard on the
transmitter signal, then it would not be considered "FULL QUIETING".
There are times when either station using a repeater may be getting into the
repeater receiver with very little signal and the repeated signal will have
lots of noise on it. Although the repeater signal may be full quieting when the
weak station stops transmitting, the weak station can not be considered to be
full quieting into the repeater so you would give the other station a report on
his signal and not the repeater. Don’t get confused with this. If his audio
is perfectly understandable with 100 % copy and there is NO "noise"
in the background other than the above, then an accurate report for him would
be, "You’re full quieting and 100 % copy into the repeater. Anything
less than the above is usually given in various ways using an exact as possible
description of his signal. "Audio" reports are a matter of
interpretation by individual ears. We as hams are in the "business"
of communications , not HI FI broadcast FM! We can only sound as good as the
FCC will allow our transmitters to sound! If you are having extreme difficulty
copying the other station, he may also be having the same problem with you, but
remember he is hearing the repeater signal, not yours direct and so are you.
Try to get him to go "simplex" if he is coming closer to you in a few
minutes. See hint below. If the transmissions get so ruff that neither can copy
the other, then just give your call sign and clear off the repeater for others
to use while he gets closer or higher or changes his transmitting setup. Not
all conversations are completed to the end under adverse conditions or
operating situations....be patient.
HINT....If the station is in and out of
range of the repeater you and he were using and is coming in your
direction...try him on a simplex frequency! He may be loud and clear direct on
simplex and only a few miles away and getting stronger all the time but he is
getting farther from the repeater! Another situation that can happen during a
new contact is that you and he did not exchange locations at the first of the
contact. Both you and he are using a repeater 50 miles away. Then after several
minutes you discover in your conversation with the other station that he is in
the same town as you and only a couple of miles away! Time for simplex!
Don’t hog the repeater.
Simplex operation generally means station to station or direct
communication on the same frequency between two stations and not using a
repeater. Use the least amount of output power needed to carry on the contact.
Simplex should be used when the two stations are close enough to carry on a
conversation without the use of a repeater and will help in congested metro
areas with a limited number of repeaters.
Simplex should always be used if possible rather than a
See chart below for suggested simplex frequencies. (Highlighted in
Repeater input and output frequencies highlighted in yellow.
2 Meter Band Plan as suggested by the ARRL (144-148 MHz):
General CW and weak signals
EME and weak-signal SSB
SSB National calling frequency
General SSB operation
New OSCAR subband
Linear translator inputs
FM repeater inputs
Weak signal and FM simplex (145.01,03,05,07,09 are widely used for
Linear translator outputs
FM repeater outputs
Miscellaneous and experimental modes
National FM Simplex Calling Frequency
YOUR FIRST CONVERSATION AND CONTACT ON A REPEATER! That most exciting day just
arrived! You now have passed your Technician Class exam and have been issued
your first call sign by the FCC.
You have your station all set up and you are ready for your
first contact on a repeater! You chose a local repeater frequency and dial it
up on your rig. You just keyed your mic, gave out your call sign and now you
hear........your call sign and someone coming back to you with his call
sign.....he un keys and the repeater is waiting for YOU! BRAIN LOCK SETS IN!
"What do I do? What do I talk about? Will I remember all those rules,
regulations, theory and all that other stuff I had to study?
The simple answer is.......probably not......but don’t
First thing....try to write his call sign down and if he gives
his name, that too. Lots of good operators recognize a new ham instantly on the
air and they will guide you with patience, understanding, maybe some fun
prodding and picking at you to get you to relax and have fun with your new
He will WELCOME you!
A good operator will never make you feel unwanted on the air. He may ask you to
repeat your call sign just to make certain he understood who he is talking to
and if you forget to give your name, he will ask for it. Most hams don’t
like to talk to a "call sign", so getting names and also locations
helps to start the conversation. If you make mistakes....he will most likely
let you know what you did wrong and inform you as to the correct way in a
Don’t be surprised if he asks you all the questions instead
of the other way around. He is just trying to get you to feel relaxed on the
air. As your experience grows in ham radio, always try to remember your first
contact and how excited and nervous you were. Now it’s your turn and you
are the one responding to a new ham and his first contact! Make him feel at
home and.......be a good operator.....like your first contact was! Repeater
ID.....you and it! You must transmit your call sign at the end of a contact and
at least every 10 minutes during the course of any communication. You do not
have to transmit the call sign of the station to whom you are transmitting.
Never transmit without identifying. For example, keying your microphone to turn
on the repeater without saying your station call sign is illegal. If you do not
want to engage in conversation, but simply want to check if you are able to
access a particular repeater, simply say "(your call sign......
All ham radio stations, including repeaters AND YOUR STATION are
required by the FCC to have a control operator monitoring the station while it
is on the air. You are the control operator of your station.
Control operators are usually the owners, trustees or other
designated licensed operators of a repeater system. They sometimes stay quietly
in the background just listening to the every day operation of the
"machine" for technical problems, proper use, FCC rule breaking, etc
on a particular repeater.
They have complete control of whether a repeater is on the air
or off and have the ability to stop it’s operation at any time! Use the
repeater to the best of your ability.
Report any unauthorized use of a repeater to the repeater owner
or person responsible for the operation of the repeater.
One last thought....SUPPORT YOUR
It takes LOTS of money to maintain a repeater and the money has to come from
somewhere. If you can’t donate funds, then donate your time, assistance,
equipment, knowledge, labor or anything of value to the repeater owner to help
keep it on the air. It will be appreciated!
WARNING TO NON-LICENSED STATIONS!
Only licensed Amateur Radio Operators are authorized use of ANY Amateur Radio
transceiver including repeaters in the transmit function.
SEVERE PENALTIES ARE ENFORCED BY THE
FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION!
LICENSED HAMS HAVE WAYS TO DETECT BOGUS CALL SIGNS!
DON’T TRY IT!
DON’T FORGET .....ID YOUR STATION
THE REPEATER WILL NOT ID FOR YOU....IT ONLY ID’S ITSELF!
After all......it’s only a dumb
HAVE FUN....73, N4UJW !