This information, written by Don Butler
N4UJW, came from the following site: http://www.hamuniverse.com/repeater.html.
The information was re posted here with his permission with LIMARC’s
thanks. It is well written and an interesting source for the new ham
operating on a repeater and a great source for those that have been on
repeaters for years, but could use a little reminder. Read it, you’ll
be glad you did! You might want to visit the original site (with this
content) and definitely go to his main antenna site (his most popular
page on his site) for invaluable information: http://www.hamuniverse.com/antennas.html
Try this site too: - http://www.hamuniverse.com/techniciantopics.html.
Here we go!
A New Ham’s Guide
How to Use Amateur (Ham Radio) Repeaters
Simple enough for even me to
understand! This article will help the New Ham to be more at home on
repeaters and understand the operation and procedures on Ham Radio
Repeaters. It contains a basic description of a ham radio repeater, how
to use it properly and is written with the NEW HAM in mind for the most
popular ham band....2 meters.
What is a Repeater and Why is it Needed, and How Does
It’s a two-way radio system that receives on one frequency, then
re-transmits what it hears on another frequency; at exactly the same
time. It’s nothing more than a "dumb machine" with some smart people
it’s needed: Your mobile or handleld transceiver, has a
limited range due to it’s antenna height with respect to the radio
horizon and rf attenuating surroundings. Repeater systems are used to
"transfer" your transmitted and received signals to much higher
elevations electronically using large, very efficient antennas, low
loss feedlines and a transmitter and receiver that is rated for heavy
or continuous duty. A repeater "gets out" your signal and receives the
station you are talking to with a far greater range and coverage area!
You take advantage of the repeater’s higher elevation to increase your
effective transmitting and receiving coverage versus your mobile or
hand held transceiver!
How does a Repeater work?
Here’s a simple block diagram of a
The Basic Repeater Components:
Most repeaters use only one antenna. The antenna is used on transmit
and receive signals that are going into and out of the repeater. It
usually is a high performance, heavy duty, and very efficient antenna
located as high on a tower or structure as we can get it above the
surrounding terrain. Lots of repeater system antennas are located on a
high hill or mountain. Antenna systems for repeater use are usually
very costly and have high gain.
The feed line used on most repeaters is not just a piece of standard
coax cable. A type of specialized feed line called Hard line is used.
It is very similar to cable tv line that you see strung between power
poles around town. The signal loss with hard line versus regular coax
is much lower than in standard coax, so more power gets to the antenna
and weaker signals can be received.
This device serves a major role in a repeater. The duplexer separates
and isolates the incoming signal from the outgoing and vice versa. It
prevents the receiver and transmitter from hearing one another by the
isolation it provides. A duplexer has the shape of tall cans and is
designed to pass a very narrow range of frequencies and to reject
others. It helps to reject very strong nearby frequencies from other
repeaters or rf producers from getting into the repeater system.
Receives the incoming signal. This receiver is generally a very
sensitive and selective one which helps weaker stations to be heard
better by the repeater. It is set to receive the input frequency. It’s
also where CTCSS (Continuous Tone Coded Squelch System) or "PL"
decoding takes place.
Most machines, as repeaters are sometimes called, have a transmitter
composed of an exciter and a power amplifier. The exciter modulates the
audio coming from the receiver which is tuned to the transmitting
stations’s frequency at the proper transmit frequency, and the power
amplifier simply boosts its level so the signal will travel further.
Lots of repeaters use 100 watts or more. It simply takes the weaker
received frequency from say a mobile and re-transmits it (repeats) at a
higher power level on a different frequency.
This is the brain of the repeater. It handles repeater station ID using
either CW or voice, activates the transmitter at the appropriate times,
and sometimes performs many other functions depending on the
sophistication of the repeater. Some also have a DVR (Digital Voice
Recorder) for announcements and messages. The controller is a small
computer that’s programmed to control a repeater.
In order to listen and transmit at the same time, repeaters use two
different frequencies. One for it’s transmit frequency and another for
it’s receive frequency. On the 2 meter ham band these frequencies are
600 khz (or 600 kilohertz) apart. On other bands, the offsets are
different. As a general rule, if the output frequency (transmit) of the
repeater is below 147 Mhz, then the input frequency (listening) is 600
kilohertz lower. This is referred to as a negative offset. If the
output is 147 Mhz or above, then the input is 600 kilohertz above. This
is referred to as a positive offset. Virtually all ham radios sold
today set the offset once you have chosen the operating frequency
automatically. Example: If the repeater output is 146.840 Mhz. The
input, or the frequency it listens on is 146.240 Mhz ( 600 kilohertz
below). If you have your radio tuned to 146.840 Mhz, (the repeater’s
output frequency), when you push the mic button, your radio
automatically transmits on 146.240 Mhz, 600kc’s down from 146.840. When
you release the mic button to listen, your radio switches back to
146.840 Mhz to listen on the repeater’s output frequency. Note: There
are exceptions to the rule so check local repeater listings.
Standard Repeater Input/Output
do Repeaters use an Offset?
Without having an offset between the transmit signal and the receive
signal frequency, the repeater would simply hear itself when it was
transmitting on the same frequency it was listening on! Therefore, to
use a repeater a user must use a different transmit frequency than
receive frequency. Your actual transmit frequency is the exact same one
that the repeater receiver is listening on. This is a form of duplex,
or two frequency operation. It is known as half-duplex as you do not
receive and transmit at the same time but normally use the push-to-talk
button on your microphone to switch between the two. Cell phones use
full duplex so each party can hear the other while the other is
talking. Even with the offset, the two frequencies are close enough
that some isolation is required. Again, this isolation is done by the
Duplexer. So you can see why some repeater components interact with
each other and without the basic system components....nothing would
all those tones about?
What is a PL or CTCSS Tone?
PL, an acronym for Private Line, is Motorola’s proprietary name for a
communications industry signaling scheme called the Continuous Tone
Coded Squelch System, or CTCSS. It is used to prevent a repeater from
responding to unwanted signals or interference. Tone Squelch is an
electronic means of allowing a repeater to respond only to stations
that encode or send the proper tone. In other words, if a repeater is
set up to operate only when a PL tone of say, 136.5hz is heard by it’s
receiver, then it will allow the transmitting station access. If your
station, (your mobile, base or handheld) does not transmit the tone
when you key up, then the receiver of the repeater does not hear you
and will not be usable by your station until you set the tone in your
radio. Any station may be set up to transmit this unique low frequency
tone that allows the repeater to operate. If a repeater is "In PL mode"
that means it requires a CTCSS tone(PL tone)to activate the repeater.
Due to severe congestion of ham repeaters in some areas, most repeaters
are PL’ed. These repeaters were once called closed repeaters.
TABLE OF COMMON PL TONES (in hz)
67.0 94.8 131.8 171.3 203.5
69.3 97.4 136.5 173.8 206.5
71.9 100.0 141.3 177.3 210.7
74.4 103.5 146.2 179.9 218.1
77.0 107.2 151.4 183.5 225.7
79.7 110.9 156.7 186.2 229.1
82.5 114.8 159.8 189.9 233.6
85.4 118.8 162.2 192.8 241.8
88.5 123.0 165.5 196.6 250.3
91.5 127.3 167.9 199.5 254.1
Happens When You Key Your mic?
Let’s "key up" a repeater and see what sequence of events are created
within the repeater equipment when someone makes a transmission:
You key your mic and throw out your
callsign...."This is KE5??? listening on the 146.84 machine". Then you
release the mic button.
Assuming your station is within range
of the repeater....The repeater antenna picked up your signal with it’s
antenna on 146.24 (your transmit frequency set to the standard offset
and the repeater’s receive frequency) and sent it down the feedline to
From there it was sent to the repeater
receiver and converted to an audio signal (just like the sounds coming
from your speaker)....sent to the controller (the brains of the
repeater), then sent to the repeater transmitter and turned back into a
much greater amplified radio signal on 146.84mhz (the output of the
repeater)....sent to the duplexer....then thru the feedline to the
antenna and out over the air.
A mobile or base station that happened
to be within range and monitoring the .84 machine heard your
transmission on 146.84mhz (the repeater output frequency).
Since radio waves travel at about the
speed of light....at the split second that you first keyed your mic,
the above events took place and the repeater was receiving your signal
on one frequency and re-transmitting your signal on a different
frequency at the same time!
The mobile station that was listening
on the output frequency of the repeater heard your callsign....keyed
his mic and came back to you starting the process all over again!
A simple way of demonstrating what is
going on with a repeater is to set a scanner or a second receiver tuned
to the input frequency of a LOCAL active repeater...in the case
above...146.24mhz and you can monitor it’s input (and the stations
using it if they are local). Then with your transceiver, monitor the
output on 146.84mhz! You should be able to hear both the input signals
and the output of the repeater as all this takes place on the air.
do you make a call on an Amateur Repeater?
First, LISTEN AND LISTEN SOME MORE...... to make sure that the repeater
is not already in use. When you are satisfied that the repeater is not
in use, set your transmitter power
to the minimum and increase only as needed to make contact with the
repeater, begin with the callsign of the station you are
trying to contact followed by your callsign. e.g. " N4??? this is
N3???". (The N3??? is your callsign). If you don’t establish contact
with the station you are looking for, wait a minute or two and repeat
your call. If you are just announcing your presence on the repeater it
is helpful to others that may be listening if you identify the repeater
you are using AND your callsign. e.g. " This is N3??? listening on the
84 machine or you could also say This is N3??? listening on 146.84
Dallas or the location of the repeater if known. This allows people
that are listening on radios that scan several repeaters to identify
which repeater you are using. If the repeater you are using is a busy
repeater you may consider moving to a simplex frequency (transmit and
receive on the same frequency..... see more below), once you have made
contact with the station you were calling. Repeaters are designed to
enhance communications between stations that normally wouldn’t be able
to communicate because of terrain or power limitations. If you can
maintain your conversation without using the repeater, going "simplex"
(both stations on same frequency in a different part of the band) will
leave the repeater free for other stations to use that can’t establish
Etiquette and Reporting
The first and most important rule before using a repeater is to LISTEN
FIRST. Nothing is more annoying than someone that "keys up" or DOUBLES
in the middle of another conversation without first checking to make
sure the repeater is free. If the repeater is in use, wait for a pause
in the conversation (watch your S meter and wait for it to drop
indicating the repeater is listening) and simply say "Emergency,
Emergency, Emergency", and wait for one of the other stations to
acknowledge your call. If for some reason you are not heard, then
repeat the 3 "Emergencies" again...then if you are still not heard, try
another nearby repeater.
This is not CB radio!
Don’t use CB lingo on any ham band such as 10-4,.....don’t say BREAKER!
Using the words BREAK, or BREAK, BREAK or BREAK, BREAK, BREAK or any
combination of them on Ham radio can be misunderstood by an operator
depending on his experience. The word "break" or combinations of it
carries many different meanings in the ham community and in the English
language. According to THE EMERGENCY COORDINATOR’S MANUAL Edited by
Steven Ewald, WV1X and Published by The
American Radio Relay League, Inc., Quote from the "General
"16) The word "break"
is never used UNLESS there is an
Then further down in the manual, it
appears to contradict or discourage the use of the word/s BREAK in the
"Note: The practice of using "BREAK"
or "BREAK BREAK" to announce distress traffic should
be strongly discouraged; it has no universally understood meaning.
So rather than have
confusion...use plain language!
HOW DO YOU REPORT or ACT ON AN EMERGENCY ON A HAM BAND?
Many hams use the wording, "BREAK, BREAK, BREAK", (the word "break"
repeated 3 times in a row). This is accepted practice on the hf bands
where noise may be a problem but on repeaters, usually noise is not a
problem, so using "plain" language such as "EMERGENCY", REPEATED 2 OR
MORE TIMES can be used to announce that there is an emergency and the
frequency is needed to relay vital information....if you hear an
"Emergency" call during your conversation with another station....stop transmitting, acknowledge the
station calling the emergency and let them have the frequency
immediately! Don’t delay them
by saying something on the order of "Stand by breaker" and then carry
on your conversation with your contact. Seconds wasted doing this may
save a life! Listen to them carefully and write down the details of
their emergency. They will give you the details of the emergency. Then
pause for a moment and wait before you go back to him.......many other
hams who heard the emergency call may be responding ALL at the same
If someone "beats" you to getting back
to him, let him take over. Do not break into the conversations UNLESS
there is a need for a relay. Under certain situations due to distances
involved with mobiles and repeaters, you may be able to hear a mobile
BETTER than the repeater on the input frequency of the repeater. It is
a good idea to monitor the input if possible if the station reporting
the emergency is having trouble getting into the repeater. You may be
closer to him than the repeater and can hear him better! Whether or not
the station reporting the emergency is a base station OR mobile, try to
monitor the input of the repeater if there is difficulty in the
ARE REPORTING AN EMERGENCY:
When using VOICE, use the international standard "MAYDAY" or
universally understood "EMERGENCY" to announce traffic of life-or-death importance.
The procedure should be:
1.Select the repeater frequency.
2. Wait for a space between transmissions if the repeater is busy.
3. Key your mic and state..."Emergency, Emergency, Emergency" unkey.
4. Wait for a response from the repeater users. If you get no response,
try another repeater.
When you do make contact, state your call sign and give as many details
as to the emergency as possible. Don’t
panic, speak slowly and clearly
so the details will be understood the first time! Always give details
as exact and specific. Give the details of the exact LOCATION of the
emergency using enough description of the location so it can be found
easily by first responders. Don’t say....on highway 60 and leave it at
that. The emergency vehicles need exact locations if at all possible.
Remember, seconds or minutes saved equal lives in many cases! Give
number of "victims" if possible. Is there is fire involved, downed
power lines, immediate road blockage due to wreckage creating further
dangers? DETAILS, DETAILS, DETAILS. The person on the other end of your
transmission is most likely copying the info to paper so he can relay
it to the appropriate authorities. Help him help you!
some chance you have to use Morse code when reporting an emergency,
The standard CW signal is "SOS," sent as a single character--not spaced
as three letters." EXAMPLE: DIT DIT DIT DAH DAH DAH DIT DIT DIT and
NOT, dit dit dit SPACE dah dah dah SPACE dit dit dit. NOTE: Many
repeater systems allow touch tone key pad entry of "911" DIRECT TO the
911 operators and the emergency reporting system. Check with your
repeater system owners or trustees for info BEFORE YOU NEED TO KNOW.
When making a 911 call direct from your station, make sure the 911
operator understands that you are calling via ham radio and she/he can
not talk or (be heard by you) until you have unkeyed your radio. Use of
the term "over" is very helpful between you and the 911 operator. It is
not like using cell phones. It is a one way (half duplex) transmission
using a repeater and not simplex as with regular cell phones or land
lines. Both parties CAN NOT talk at the same time!
Use plain language on a repeater. If
you want to know someone’s location, say "Where are you.... or what’s
your location?" If you want to know whether someone you’re talking with
is using a mobile rig or a hand-held radio, just ask: "What kind of
radio are you using?" You get the idea. Most repeater use is of a
"local" nature so signals will be usually of very high quality. The use
of the phonetic alphabet is very helpful at times.
Don’t call CQ to initiate a
conversation on a repeater. Just simply listen to make certain the
repeater is not in use and then key your mic and say your call sign. If
someone happens to be listening and they want to talk to you they will
When you are using the repeater leave a
couple of seconds between exchanges to allow other stations to join in
or make a quick call. Most repeaters have a "Courtesy Tone" (a
short...beep or series of beeps) that will help in determining how long
to pause. The courtesy tone serves two purposes. Repeaters have a time
out function that will shut down the transmitter if the repeater is
held on for a preset length of time (normally three or four minutes).
This ensures that if someone’s transmitter is stuck on for any reason,
it won’t hold the repeater’s transmitter on indefinitely. (Don’t laugh,
many microphones get lodged in the fold of car seats and keep a
repeater busy until it times out. Of course if it is not noticed soon
by the mobile operator.....the control operator of the repeater may
have to shut down the repeater until the problem is corrected.) When a
ham is talking and releases the push-to-talk switch on their radio, the
controller in the repeater detects the loss of carrier and resets the
time-out timer. When the timer is reset, the repeater sends out the
courtesy tone. If you wait until you hear this beep (normally a couple
of seconds), before you respond, you can be sure that you are pausing a
suitable length of time. After you hear the beep, the repeater’s
transmitter will stay on for a few more seconds before turning off.
This is referred to as the "tail". The length of the tail will vary
from repeater to repeater but the average is about 2 or 3 seconds.
You don’t HAVE to wait for the "tail to
drop" before keying up again, but make sure that you hear the courtesy
tone before going ahead. Note: If you don’t wait for the beep, the
time-out timer may not reset. If you time-out the repeater, YOUR
conversation AFTER the time-out will not be heard. The repeater
time-out function does not care if you are still talking or not; and
the station on the other end may rib you about hogging the machine and
you will have wasted all those words! What is Doubling? When two
stations try to talk at the same time on the same repeater, the signals
mix in the repeater’s receiver and results in a buzzing sound, squeal,
distorted sound or severely jumbled and broken words.
When you are involved in a roundtable
discussion with several other stations it is always best to pass off
the repeater to a specific person (station) rather than leave it up it
the air. e.g. "W3??? to take it, this is N3???", then unkey; or.......
"Do you have any comments Fred?, this
is N3???"; un key. You could also say "OK...that’s all I have.....back
to you Fred" or the next person in rotation... (un key)....
Failing to use this or other techniques is an invitation to total
confusion. As a point of interest, a repeater will usually lock into
the strongest of two FM signals. This is the nature of FM. The
strongest signal usually wins.
Reports on a Repeater
Lots of new hams don’t understand that the S meter on their radio is
only reporting the relative strength of the repeater system and NOT the
signal strength of the station they are talking to unless they are in
the simplex mode. When the repeater is transmitting, it may have an
output greatly exceeding that of the station IT is listening to.
Remember the station it hears on the input frequency of it’s receiver
may be on a hand held radio and only a few blocks from the "machine" or
it could be a mobile radio in a vehicle out on the fringes of the
repeater coverage area or a base station running a high gain antenna
and 100 watts from the next county or in some cases, the next state. To
a third party, (another ham), listening to the machine on the repeater
output, all of these stations would have the same S meter reading on
his S meter! As long as the repeater can detect the signals and is
working properly as it is setup, then all stations, (to the third ham),
will "appear" to have the same signal strength on the S meter. Remember, the S meter is only reporting the
relative strength of the repeater when it is transmitting
and not the individual stations! So all that being said, how do you
give an accurate signal report to the station you are talking to?
JUST USE PLAIN ENGLISH!
Listen to the background sounds of his AUDIO coming from your speaker
in between words and sentences. Don’t even look at your S meter.
(Assuming the repeater has a good strong signal into your location).
If there is no noise other than room
background, road, passenger or other sounds that could be picked up by
his microphone, then he would be said to have a FULL QUIETING signal
into the repeater.....receiver. NOT 50 OVER S9, S9, OR ANY COMBINATION
on your S meter. The term "Quieting" refers to the carrier level of the
transmitter being strong enough to "quiet" the background hiss on the
frequency. If some background noise such as the hiss that is commonly
heard in an FM receiver is heard on the transmitter signal, then it
would not be considered "FULL QUIETING". There are times when either
station using a repeater may be getting into the repeater receiver with
very little signal and the repeated signal will have lots of noise on
it. Although the repeater signal may be full quieting when the weak
station stops transmitting, the weak station can not be considered to
be full quieting into the repeater so you would give the other station
a report on his signal and not the repeater. Don’t get confused with
this. If his audio is perfectly understandable with 100 % copy and
there is NO "noise" in the background other than the above, then an
accurate report for him would be, "You’re full quieting and 100 % copy
into the repeater. Anything less than the above is usually given in
various ways using an exact as possible description of his signal.
"Audio" reports are a matter of interpretation by individual ears. We
as hams are in the "business" of communications , not HI FI broadcast
FM! We can only sound as good as the FCC will allow our transmitters to
sound! If you are having extreme difficulty copying the other station,
he may also be having the same problem with you, but remember he is
hearing the repeater signal, not yours direct and so are you. Try to
get him to go "simplex" if he is coming closer to you in a few minutes.
See hint below. If the transmissions get so ruff that neither can copy
the other, then just give your call sign and clear off the repeater for
others to use while he gets closer or higher or changes his
transmitting setup. Not all conversations are completed to the end
under adverse conditions or operating situations....be patient.
the station is in and out of range of the repeater you and he were
using and is coming in your direction...try him on a simplex frequency!
He may be loud and clear direct on simplex and only a few miles away
and getting stronger all the time but he is getting farther from the
repeater! Another situation that can happen during a new contact is
that you and he did not exchange locations at the first of the contact.
Both you and he are using a repeater 50 miles away. Then after several
minutes you discover in your conversation with the other station that
he is in the same town as you and only a couple of miles away! Time for
simplex! Don’t hog the repeater.
Simplex operation generally means
station to station or direct communication on the same frequency
between two stations and not using a repeater. Use the least amount of
output power needed to carry on the contact. Simplex should be used
when the two stations are close enough to carry on a conversation
without the use of a repeater and will help in congested metro areas
with a limited number of repeaters.
Simplex should always be used
if possible rather than a repeater.
See chart below for suggested simplex
frequencies. (Highlighted in gray)
Repeater input and output frequencies highlighted in yellow.
2 Meter Band Plan as suggested by the ARRL (144-148 MHz):
General CW and weak signals
EME and weak-signal SSB
SSB National calling frequency
General SSB operation
New OSCAR subband
Linear translator inputs
FM repeater inputs
Weak signal and FM simplex
(145.01,03,05,07,09 are widely used for packet)
Linear translator outputs
FM repeater outputs
Miscellaneous and experimental modes
National FM Simplex Calling Frequency
YOUR FIRST CONVERSATION AND CONTACT ON A REPEATER! That most exciting
day just arrived! You now have passed your Technician Class exam and
have been issued your first call sign by the FCC.
You have your station all set up and
you are ready for your first contact on a repeater! You chose a local
repeater frequency and dial it up on your rig. You just keyed your mic,
gave out your call sign and now you hear........your call sign and
someone coming back to you with his call sign.....he un keys and the
repeater is waiting for YOU! BRAIN LOCK SETS IN! "What do I do? What do
I talk about? Will I remember all those rules, regulations, theory and
all that other stuff I had to study?
The simple answer is.......probably
not......but don’t worry!
First thing....try to write his call
sign down and if he gives his name, that too. Lots of good operators
recognize a new ham instantly on the air and they will guide you with
patience, understanding, maybe some fun prodding and picking at you to
get you to relax and have fun with your new license.
He will WELCOME you!
A good operator will never make you feel unwanted on the air. He may
ask you to repeat your call sign just to make certain he understood who
he is talking to and if you forget to give your name, he will ask for
it. Most hams don’t like to talk to a "call sign", so getting names and
also locations helps to start the conversation. If you make
mistakes....he will most likely let you know what you did wrong and
inform you as to the correct way in a friendly manor.
Don’t be surprised if he asks you all
the questions instead of the other way around. He is just trying to get
you to feel relaxed on the air. As your experience grows in ham radio,
always try to remember your first contact and how excited and nervous
you were. Now it’s your turn and you are the one responding to a new
ham and his first contact! Make him feel at home and.......be a good
operator.....like your first contact was! Repeater ID.....you and it!
You must transmit your call sign at the end of a contact and at least
every 10 minutes during the course of any communication. You do not
have to transmit the call sign of the station to whom you are
transmitting. Never transmit without identifying. For example, keying
your microphone to turn on the repeater without saying your station
call sign is illegal. If you do not want to engage in conversation, but
simply want to check if you are able to access a particular repeater,
simply say "(your call sign...... testing."
All ham radio stations, including
repeaters AND YOUR STATION are required by the FCC to have a control
operator monitoring the station while it is on the air. You are the
control operator of your station.
Control operators are usually the
owners, trustees or other designated licensed operators of a repeater
system. They sometimes stay quietly in the background just listening to
the every day operation of the "machine" for technical problems, proper
use, FCC rule breaking, etc on a particular repeater.
They have complete control of whether
a repeater is on the air or off and have the ability to stop it’s
operation at any time! Use the repeater to the best of your ability.
Report any unauthorized use of a
repeater to the repeater owner or person responsible for the operation
of the repeater.
One last thought....SUPPORT YOUR LOCAL REPEATER/S.
It takes LOTS of money to maintain a repeater and the money has to come
from somewhere. If you can’t donate funds, then donate your time,
assistance, equipment, knowledge, labor or anything of value to the
repeater owner to help keep it on the air. It will be appreciated!
TO NON-LICENSED STATIONS!
Only licensed Amateur Radio Operators are authorized use of ANY Amateur
Radio transceiver including repeaters in the transmit function.
PENALTIES ARE ENFORCED BY THE FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION!
LICENSED HAMS HAVE WAYS TO DETECT
BOGUS CALL SIGNS!
DON’T TRY IT!
DON’T FORGET .....ID YOUR STATION
THE REPEATER WILL NOT ID FOR YOU....IT ONLY ID’S ITSELF!
After all......it’s only a dumb
HAVE FUN....73, N4UJW !